Best temperature in the world: The best climate in the world
What’s Earth’s ‘ideal temperature’? That’s a misleading question
Earth’s average global temperature from 2013 to 2017, as compared to a baseline average from 1951 to 1980.
Credit: nasa giss.
The most commonly asked questions about climate change, particularly from those who doubt the mainstream findings showing that greenhouse gases are warming the planet, tend to be zombies. They rear their heads again and again, only to seemingly die and then rise once more.
This is the case with one particular question that a high-ranking U.S. official has been asking: How do we know the planet’s “ideal temperature” years into the future?
On its face, it seems like an innocent-enough inquiry. The Earth is warming in response to human-caused emissions of greenhouse gases, like carbon dioxide and methane, and world leaders have committed to limit warming to “well below” 2 degrees Celsius, or 3.6 degrees Fahrenheit, above pre-industrial levels by the year 2100. Why 2 degrees? That seems arbitrary, no?
EPA’s leader is open to reconsidering crucial climate assessment. That’s not good.
Many studies have shown that if warming goes above this threshold, the more harmful the impacts of climate change will be, from extreme weather events to sea level rise that will overwhelm the world’s coastal megacities.
Scientists who study coral reefs have found that an even lower warming threshold, of 1.5 degrees Celsius, or 2.7 degrees Fahrenheit, relative to pre-industrial temperatures is necessary to ensure the survival of these gorgeous and vital ecosystems.
The West Antarctic Ice Sheet, viewed here from a NASA aircraft in 2016, is far less stable than previously thought.
Credit: Getty Images
Yet, during a television interview with Las Vegas television station KSNV-TV on Feb. 7, Scott Pruitt, the head of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) said it’s “arrogant” to claim that we know the planet’s ideal temperature at a particular point in the future. He also seemed to imply that global warming could be a net positive for humanity, which is flat out wrong when considering all the costs and benefits of different regions of the world.
“We know humans have most flourished during times of what, warming trends,” Pruitt said during the interview.
“So I think there’s assumptions made that because the climate is warming, that that necessarily is a bad thing,” Pruitt said. “Do we really know what the ideal surface temperature should be in the year 2100, in the year 2018? That’s fairly arrogant for us to think that we know exactly what it should be in 2100.”
Climate scientists say that it’s not so much the exact global average surface temperature in 2100 that makes the most difference for whether certain species will survive global warming or if Miami will be inundated by rising seas. Instead, the rate of change is what is so important.
The faster that climate changes, the more significant the impacts will be. Just this week, for example, a study was published showing that due to the melting of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets, sea level rise is now accelerating, making adapting to new water levels far more difficult.
“Human civilization developed during a period of remarkable climate stability,” said Kate Marvel, a climate scientist at NASA’s Goddard Institute for Space Studies in New York.
“We’re (mostly) equipped to handle the natural variations around this stable baseline, but society just wasn’t built to handle rapid climate changes (look at all those coastal cities),” she said in an email.
Carbon dioxide levels in the air have been rising rapidly.
Credit: ed hawkins.
“And the climate is now changing at an unprecedented rate. Call me arrogant, but I think that the floods, droughts, heat waves, and sea level rise projected under high emissions scenarios aren’t ideal,” Marvel added.
Zeke Hausfather, who works as an analyst for Carbon Brief and tracks global surface temperatures for Berkeley Earth, is someone who does a great deal of thinking about trends in surface temperatures, and how the public can best think about them.
“The problems with trying focus on an ‘ideal temperature’ are twofold,” he said in an email. “First, many human and natural systems have evolved to meet the climate we have today. Changes will necessarily introduce disruption.”
He cited declining farm yields, plant and animal species that won’t be able to adapt to drastic changes in their ecosystems, and the vulnerability of coastal residents as examples of this disruption.
Like other scientists reached for this story, Hausfather said the rate of climate change occurring now stands out when viewed against the course of human history.
“In the past, climate usually changed slowly over thousands of years; today we are on track to add warming equivalent to the difference between the middle of the last ice age and today during a single century. The rate of change can make adaptation difficult, particularly for the natural world,” he wrote.
“If we lived in a world adapted to 3 or 4 degrees Celsius (5.4 to 7.2 degrees Fahrenheit) warmer it would be one thing, but the Earth has been pretty close to its current temperature for the last 12,000 years or so,” he said. “If we were to slowly raise temperatures over thousands of years both human and natural systems would be able to adapt much more easily, but adding 3 degrees Celsius (5.4 degrees Fahrenheit) [of] warming in a single century will create enormous stresses.”
The Earth doesn’t have an ideal temperature, and climate deniers like Scott Pruitt know that. Human society has evolved, and flourished, during a period of remarkable climate stability. We’re now propelling the climate into an extremely unstable period, characterized by such rapid change that many researchers refer to this as its own geological epoch, known as the “Anthropocene.”
“We are perfectly adapted to our current conditions. Any change will be disruptive, expensive, and more likely to be harmful, on the whole, than not,” said Katharine Hayhoe, a climate scientist at Texas Tech University, in an email.
Hayhoe addressed this issue of whether climate change could be beneficial, and if there is an ideal temperature, in her PBS online series, “Global Weirding. “
Perhaps the answer to the “ideal temperature” question is that the best climate for humanity is one that is not rapidly careening toward tipping points in the climate system, but is steady and reliable, like that person in your life who will always be there for you no matter what.
Here’s how Stefan Rahmstorf, head of Earth system analysis at the Potsdam Institute of Climate Impacts Research in Germany, put it:
Coastal flooding is getting worse as sea levels rise.
Credit: Rick Friedman/Corbis via Getty Images
“The ideal climate for us is a stable climate. The whole infrastructure of our civilization has evolved around the climate that has existed in the past millennia.”
“The problem is not whether Earth is on average 12 degrees Celsius or 15 degrees Celsius or 18 degrees Celsius warm[er], the problem is whether the climate changes compared to what it was in the past — and how fast this happens,” he said.
For many people, the question of whether Earth has an ideal temperature and, if so, what is it, is an earnest inquiry. Temperature targets like the ones in the Paris Climate Agreement make it seem like world leaders are aiming for an ideal thermostat setting.
Pruitt, however, has trotted this inquiry out as just his latest position statement on climate science. It’s one he’s taking while promising to hold publicized “red team versus blue team” debates on climate science to figure out once and for all if the science is solid, while slashing his own agency’s budget for climate research and taking down its extensive online resource for climate information.
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Climate Change: Global Temperature | NOAA Climate.gov
Yearly surface temperature compared to the 20th-century average from 1880–2021. Blue bars indicate cooler-than-average years; red bars show warmer-than-average years. NOAA Climate.gov graph, based on data from the National Centers for Environmental Information.
Given the tremendous size and heat capacity of the global oceans, it takes a massive amount of heat energy to raise Earth’s average yearly surface temperature even a small amount. The roughly 2-degree Fahrenheit (1 degrees Celsius) increase in global average surface temperature that has occurred since the pre-industrial era (1880-1900) might seem small, but it means a significant increase in accumulated heat.
That extra heat is driving regional and seasonal temperature extremes, reducing snow cover and sea ice, intensifying heavy rainfall, and changing habitat ranges for plants and animals—expanding some and shrinking others. As the map below shows, most land areas have warmed faster than most ocean areas, and the Arctic is warming faster than most other regions.
Trends in global average surface temperature between 1990 and 2021 in degrees Fahrenheit per decade. Most of the planet is warming (yellow, orange, red). Only a few locations, most of them in Southern Hemisphere oceans, cooled over this time period. NOAA Climate.gov map, based on data from NOAA Centers for Environmental Information.
About surface temperature
The concept of an average temperature for the entire globe may seem odd. After all, at this very moment, the highest and lowest temperatures on Earth are likely more than 100°F (55°C) apart. Temperatures vary from night to day and between seasonal extremes in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. This means that some parts of Earth are quite cold while other parts are downright hot. To speak of the “average” temperature, then, may seem like nonsense. However, the concept of a global average temperature is convenient for detecting and tracking changes in Earth’s energy budget—how much sunlight Earth absorbs minus how much it radiates to space as heat—over time.
To calculate a global average temperature, scientists begin with temperature measurements taken at locations around the globe. Because their goal is to track changes in temperature, measurements are converted from absolute temperature readings to temperature anomalies—the difference between the observed temperature and the long-term average temperature for each location and date. Multiple independent research groups across the world perform their own analysis of the surface temperature data, and they all show a similar upward trend.
Earth’s surface temperature each year from 1900–2020 compared to the 1981-2020 average, based on temperature histories put together by three different research groups: NOAA (red), University of East Anglia (pink line), and NASA (orange line). All show Earth is warming. (The latest multi-dataset comparison comes out each summer in the Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society’s State of the Climate reports.) The background image from the NOAA DISCOVR/EPIC mission shows Hurricane Laura coming ashore in Louisiana on August 26, 2020. Image by NOAA Climate.gov, adapted from State of the Climate 2020.
Across inaccessible areas that have few measurements, scientists use surrounding temperatures and other information to estimate the missing values. Each value is then used to calculate a global temperature average. This process provides a consistent, reliable method for monitoring changes in Earth’s surface temperature over time. Read more about how the global surface temperature record is built in our Climate Data Primer.
Global temperature in 2021
According to the 2021 Global Climate Report from NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information, every month of 2021 was warmer than average, despite the cooling influence from the La Niña climate pattern in the tropical Pacific. The “coolest” month was February, which was 1.15 ˚F warmer than average; the rest of the year temperatures were more than 1.4 ˚F warmer than average.
Map of global average surface temperature in 2021 compared to the 1981-2010 average, with places that were warmer than average colored red, and places that were cooler than average colored blue. The graph shows global temperatures compared to the 20th-century average each year from 2021 (right) back to 1976 (left)–the last year the world was cooler than average. NOAA Climate.gov image, based on data from NOAA NCEI.
According to NCEI,
The year culminated as the sixth warmest year on record for the globe with a temperature that was 0. 84°C (1.51°F) above the 20th century average. The years 2013–2021 all rank among the ten warmest years on record. The year 2021 was also the 45th consecutive year (since 1977) with global temperatures, at least nominally, above the 20th century average. Of note, the year 2005, which was the first year to set a new global temperature record in the 21st century, currently ties with 2013 as the 10th warmest year on record and 2010 ranks as the ninth warmest on record.
For more regional details and 2021 climate statistics, see the 2021 Annual Climate Report from NOAA’s National Centers for Environmental Information.
Past and future change in global temperature
Though warming has not been uniform across the planet, the upward trend in the globally averaged temperature shows that more areas are warming than cooling. According to NOAA’s 2021 Annual Climate Report the combined land and ocean temperature has increased at an average rate of 0.14 degrees Fahrenheit ( 0. 08 degrees Celsius) per decade since 1880; however, the average rate of increase since 1981 (0.18°C / 0.32°F) has been more than twice that rate.
The amount of future warming Earth will experience depends on how much carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases we emit in coming decades. Today, our activities—burning fossil fuels and clearing forests—add about 11 billion metric tons of carbon (equivalent to a little over 40 billion metric tons of carbon dioxide) to the atmosphere each year. Because that is more carbon than natural processes can remove, atmospheric carbon dioxide increases each year.
Image by Katharine Hayhoe, from the 2017 Climate Science Special Report by the U.S. Global Change Research Program.
According to the 2017 U.S. Climate Science Special Report, if yearly emissions continue to increase rapidly, as they have since 2000, models project that by the end of this century, global temperature will be at least 5 degrees Fahrenheit warmer than the 1901-1960 average, and possibly as much as 10. 2 degrees warmer. If annual emissions increase more slowly and begin to decline significantly by 2050, models project temperatures would still be at least 2.4 degrees warmer than the first half of the 20th century, and possibly up to 5.9 degrees warmer.
NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information, State of the Climate: Global Climate Report for 2021, online January 2021, retrieved on June 28, 2022, from https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/sotc/global/202113.
IPCC, 2013: Summary for Policymakers. In: Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group 1 to the 5th Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Stocker, T.F., D. Qin, G.-K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S.K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, V. Bex and P.M. Midgley (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA.
USGCRP, 2017: Climate Science Special Report: Fourth National Climate Assessment, Volume I [Wuebbles, D. J., D.W. Fahey, K.A. Hibbard, D.J. Dokken, B.C. Stewart, and T.K. Maycock (eds.)]. U.S. Global Change Research Program, Washington, DC, USA, 470 pp., doi: 10.7930/J0J964J6.
What is the average temperature on Earth?
(Image credit: NASA Goddard’s Scientific Visualization Studio)
The average temperature on Earth lies somewhere around 57 degrees Fahrenheit (13.9 degrees Celsius). According to climate information from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), that was the 20th century average temperature, measured across land and ocean, night and day. However, the planet’s average temperature is rising. The 10 warmest years across the entirety of recorded human history have all occurred since 2005.
Based on NOAA’s temperature data, 2020 was the second warmest year ever recorded, just behind 2016. In the 21st century, average yearly temperature on Earth has been more than 2 degrees F (more than 1 degree C) higher than recorded pre-industrial temperatures.
Earth is the only planet we know of that can support life. The planet has two major advantages that keep it habitable: its distance from the sun, and its protective atmosphere.
Earth lies in a “Goldilocks zone” that is not too far from the sun, but not too close either. The distance from Earth to the sun is one of the most important factors in making Earth habitable. Much closer, and seas would boil: temperatures on Venus, the next closest planet to the sun, reach more than 880 degrees Fahrenheit (471 degrees Celsius), Space.com previously reported. While the closest planet to the sun, Mercury, doesn’t trap heat like Venus, its surface can still top 840 degrees Fahrenheit (450 degrees Celsius). Meanwhile, one planet farther from the sun, the average temperature on Mars is minus 80 degrees F (minus 60 degrees C).
In addition, Earth’s atmosphere plays a vital role in regulating the temperature. The atmosphere provides a blanket of gases that not only protects us from excessive heat and harmful radiation from the sun, but also traps heat rising from the Earth’s interior. Over the past few hundred years, the planet’s atmosphere has been altered by human industrialization, changing the way it traps and releases heat.
Measuring global temperature
To estimate the global temperature, researchers measure air temperatures on land and at sea at thousands of observation stations around the world, day in and day out. Then, they add all those measurements up and divide the result by the number of observations taken — that gets them an average air temperature for the whole globe.
This heat map displays the contrast in sea surface temperature. (Image credit: Jesse Allen, NASA Earth Observatory)
At any given time on Earth, the temperatures at the hottest place and coldest place on the planet are probably almost 100 degrees F (55 degrees C) apart, according to NOAA , so an average temperature for the whole planet doesn’t do much to tell you what the weather is like outside. After all, right now it’s night somewhere and daytime somewhere else, and while it’s winter in the Northern Hemisphere, it’s summer in the Southern Hemisphere (and vice versa). But averaging temperatures around the whole globe does tell us a lot about the energy that circulates around the planet over longer periods of time, and can help researchers understand trends in climate change.
It’s difficult to get good temperature estimates around the whole planet. According to NASA Climate , global temperature data comes from thousands of observation stations, but in some regions, such as unoccupied deserts and mountaintops, stations are more difficult to set up and maintain. Meanwhile, even researchers analyzing the same data can use different methods for calculating the global average — although all show an upward trend in average temperature over the past few decades.
For example, NOAA reported in a press release that 2020 was the second-warmest year on record, in agreement with the United Kingdom Met Office, while measurements from NASA and the European Union’s Earth observation agency Copernicus ranked it as tied with 2016 for the top spot.
Temperatures are less useful for climate researchers than temperature anomalies, so most temperature reports use temperature anomalies: the difference between current temperature and a historical average.
Climate scientist Dr. Christian Braneon from Goddard Institute for Space Studies presents satellite data. (Image credit: NASA/Taylor Mickal)
NASA’s Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) assumes that temperature anomalies are about the same up to about 1,200 kilometers from a station. That method means they can estimate temperatures using a smaller number of stations, especially in the polar regions. NOAA, on the other hand, uses different areas, and produces a more conservative estimate.
NOAA tracks anomalies relative to temperatures between 1901 and 2000. According to NOAA’s data, average anomalies calculated for 2020 were 1.76 degrees F (0.98 degrees C) higher than the average temperatures for all the years in the 20th century.
GISS measures the change in global surface temperatures relative to average temperatures from 1951 to 1980. According to GISS data , global average temperatures in 2020 were 1.84 degrees F (1.02 degrees C) above the 1951-1980 historical mean.
What are the most extreme temperatures on Earth?
According to the World Meteorological Organization , the coldest temperature measured on Earth was at Vostok Station in Antarctica, where it reached minus 128.6 degrees F (minus 89.2 degrees C) on July 21, 1983. The coldest inhabited place is Oymyakon, Russia, a small village in Siberia, where it dips down to an average of minus 49 F (minus 45 degrees C) and once hit a low of minus 96.16 F (minus 71 degrees C).
The coldest temperature measured was in Antarctica. (Image credit: Getty Images)
El Azizia, Libya, held the top hot spot for 90 years. Temperatures allegedly climbed to 136.4 degrees F (58 degrees C) on Sept. 13, 1922. But the World Meteorological Organization stripped the town southwest of Tripoli of that distinction in 2012, according to a press release . A committee of climate experts from nine countries concluded that the temperature had been documented in error by an inexperienced observer.
The hottest temperature currently recognized was recorded at Greenland Ranch (Furnace Creek) in Death Valley, Calif., where it reached 134 F (56.7 C) on July 10, 1913. But even that distinction depends on what is being measured. Death Valley’s record is for the highest air temperature. A higher surface temperature of 159.3 F (70.7 C) was recorded by a Landsat satellite in 2005 in the Lut Desert in Iran, according to a 2021 paper published in the journal Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society . The paper suggests that the recorded temperature might even be an underestimate.
Temperature extremes by continent
This chart shows the temperature records for each continent — the highest and lowest temperatures recorded in North America, South America, Europe, Asia, Africa and Antarctica. These records are kept by the World Meteorological Association, which divides continents using its own regions. Those divisions include Greenland and some of the Middle East as part of Europe, for example, but other countries in the Middle East are considered part of Asia.
|North America||High: 134 F (56.7 C)||July 10, 1913||Furnace Creek Ranch, Death Valley, Calif.|
|Low: -81.4 F (-63 C)||Feb. 3, 1947||Snag, Yukon Territory, Canada|
|South America||High: 120 F (48.9 C)||Dec. 11, 1905||Rivadavia, Argentina|
|Low: -27 F (-32.8 C)||June 1, 1907||Sarmiento, Argentina|
|Europe||High: 129. 2 F (54 C)||June 21, 1942||Tirat Tsvi (Tirat Zevi) Israel|
|Low: -93.3 F (-69.6 C)||Dec. 22, 1991||Klinck, Greenland|
|Asia||High: 129.0 F (53.9 C)||July 21, 2016||Mitribah, Kuwait|
|Low: -90 F (-67.8 C)||1) Feb. 5, 1892
2) Feb. 6, 1933
|1) Verkhoyansk, Russia
2) Oymyakon, Russia
|Africa||High: 131 F (55 C)||July 7, 1931||Kebili, Tunisia|
|Low: -11 F (-23.9 C)||Feb. 11, 1935||Ifrane, Morocco|
|Australia/ Southwest Pacific||High: 123 F (50. 7 C)||Jan. 2, 1960||Oodnadatta, South Australia|
|Low: -14 F (-25.6 C)||July 17, 1903||Ranfurly, New Zealand|
|Antarctica||High: 67.6 F (19.8 C)||Jan. 30, 1982||Signy Research Station, Antarctica|
|Low: -129 F (-89.2 C)||July 21, 1983||Vostok Station, Antarctica|
How is the Earth’s temperature changing?
Earth’s atmospheric ozone layer can trap heat. (Image credit: Getty Images)
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) reported average surface temperatures on Earth rose, on average, 1.71 degrees Fahrenheit (0.95 degrees Celsius) between 1880 and 2016. The average rise has been accelerating in recent years, and the Earth’s atmosphere now traps twice as much heat as it did in 2005 due to human industrialization and fossil fuel consumption.
In 2015, 159 nations ratified the Paris Agreement, a commitment to change behavior and consumption to try to halt the warming at 2.7 degrees F (1.5 degrees C) above Earth’s average temperature before the Industrial Age. Given industry and transportation reliance on fossil fuels, many studies suggest that agreement will be difficult to keep to.
In fact, we have likely already committed the planet to warming past the Paris Agreement target, Space.com previously reported.
Global warming is now included in larger discussions of “climate change.” The planet’s average temperature is rising — some areas are seeing even faster warming temperatures, like Europe and the Arctic — but as the temperature rises and the planet traps more heat, wrote NASA , that process also prompts sea level rise, glacier and ice sheet melting, and even changes in growing seasons for wildlife and crops. Climate change and global warming make hurricanes stronger, and can prompt drought and heat waves in some places while worsening floods in others.
A rise of a few degrees in temperature may not seem like much, but according to NASA, during the last ice age when northeastern North America was covered by more than 3,000 feet of ice, the global average temperature was only 5 to 9 degrees cooler than it is today.
If you want to know more about Earth at different average temperatures through its history, check out this feature from News from Science about the Smithsonian Museum of Natural History’s updated fossil hall — or visit the hall yourself!
For books on Earth’s temperature, climate change and the future of life on Earth, try Mary Robinson’s 2018 book Climate Justice , or All We Can Save , a 2020 collection of essays edited by Ayana Elizabeth Johnson and Katharine K. Wilkinson.
“2020 Was Earth’s 2nd-Hottest Year, Just behind 2016.” National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, January 14, 2021. https://www.noaa.gov/news/2020-was-earth-s-2nd-hottest-year-just-behind-2016 .
Earth Science Communications Team. “The Effects of Climate Change.” Climate Change: Vital Signs of the Planet. NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, January 26, 2022. https://climate.nasa.gov/effects .
Climate Change: Vital Signs of the Planet. “FAQ: Global Warming vs Climate Change?” Accessed January 27, 2022. https://climate.nasa.gov/faq/12/whats-the-difference-between-climate-change-and-global-warming .
Rebecca Lindsey and Luann Dahlman. “Climate Change: Global Temperature.” Climate.gov. NOAA, August 12, 2021. https://www.climate.gov/news-features/understanding-climate/climate-change-global-temperature .
U.S. Global Change Research Program, D.J. Wuebbles, D.W. Fahey, K.A. Hibbard, D.J. Dokken, B.C. Stewart, and T.K. Maycock, eds. “Climate Science Special Report: Fourth National Climate Assessment, Volume I.” U.S. Global Change Research Program, 2017. https://doi.org/10.7930/J0J964J6 .
“WMO: Ninety-Year-Old World Temperature Record in El Azizia (Libya) Is Invalid,” September 13, 2012. https://public.wmo.int/en/media/news/wmo-ninety-year-old-world-temperature-record-el-azizia-libya-invalid .
“World Meteorological Organization’s World Weather & Climate Extremes Archive.” Arizona State University. Accessed January 26, 2022. https://wmo.asu.edu/content/world-meteorological-organization-global-weather-climate-extremes-archive .
Zhao, Yunxia, Hamid Norouzi, Marzi Azarderakhsh, and Amir AghaKouchak. “Global Patterns of Hottest, Coldest, and Extreme Diurnal Variability on Earth.” Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 102, no. 9 (September 1, 2021): E1672–81. https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-20-0325.1 .
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What is the weather comfortable (air temperature, water temperature; humidity)?
Catch the Tour
Weather is a set of values of meteorological elements and atmospheric phenomena observed at a certain point in time in a certain place.
The weather can be described by: air temperature and humidity, wind strength and direction, cloudiness, precipitation, pressure, atmospheric phenomena (fogs, snowstorms, thunderstorms) and other meteorological elements.
Comfortable weather conditions are the most favorable weather conditions for the existence of a person, in which his well-being is the best. Weather comfort is a subjective assessment of the acceptability of environmental conditions, which is determined solely by human sensations. In physiology, it is believed that a person feels most comfortable at an air temperature of +18°С to +24°С, an air humidity of 55% to 70%, and a wind speed of up to 5 m/s.
A lot of medical research is devoted to the study of the impact of weather conditions and climate on human well-being. Below, based on them, human sensations are given depending on: air temperature, water temperature, air humidity.
Human heat sensation depending on air temperature:
• More than +35°C → Extremely hot.
• +30°C … +35°C → Very hot.
• +24 … +30°С → Hot (comfortable for a beach holiday).
• +18 … +24°С → Warm (comfortable).
• +12 … +18°C → Moderately warm.
• +6 … +12°C → Cool.
• 0 … +6°С → Moderately cool.
• 0 … -12°С → Moderately cold.
• -12 … -24°C → Cold.
• -24 … -30°C → Very cold.
• Less than -30°C → Extremely cold.
Conclusion: As you can see, the most comfortable air temperature for a person is from 18°C to 24°C, but this is in everyday life, at work or on sightseeing tours. Arriving to rest on the sea, we want to lie down to rest, bask in the sun – in this case, for many, the air temperature will be comfortable from 24 ° C to 30 ° C, and for some up to 35 ° C (at low air humidity!).
Bathing water temperature
In order to benefit and enjoy bathing, the water must be at a comfortable temperature for the person.
Comfortable sea water temperature for swimming:
• From 27°C and above → Warm water. Comfortable sea temperature for a long swim. However, the development of microbes in such an environment is possible. Even the pleasant warmth of the sea becomes bacterially dangerous.
• 23 to 26°C → Warm water. Comfortable water temperature for a long swim in the sea. It is this temperature range that is recognized as the most optimal for long-term swimming!
• 20 to 22°C → Cool water that makes you feel fresh. Some enjoy bathing in such water, but for many it may still seem cool. It all depends on the individual preferences of each person, which should be guided by when determining the optimal time spent in the water. The main thing is that water procedures are not accompanied by discomfort.
• 17 to 19°C → Cold water for bathing. Acceptable conditions for dipping or diving, but not for everyone. Here it is extremely important not to overdo it with water procedures, which should be limited in time. Continuous exposure to such water for more than 4 hours can lead to loss of consciousness.
• 14 to 16°C → Very cold bathing water. Dipping and diving are possible, but not long. Staying in such water for more than 2 hours can lead to loss of consciousness.
• 9 to 13°C → Unacceptable bathing conditions. Hardened can afford to swim for 5-7 minutes.
• 1 to 8°C → Even for prepared and hardened, the dipping and dipping procedure can be hazardous. Such water allows a stay of no more than a couple of minutes.
• 0°C → Only short-term immersion is possible, otherwise hypothermia will occur.
Conclusion: The most comfortable water temperature for long-term swimming is 23°C and above.
Air types from its relative humidity:
• Above 85% → Very humid air.
• 70% … 85% → Moderately humid air.
• 55% … 70% → Moderately dry air.
• 30% … 55% → Dry air.
• Below 30% → Very dry air.
Conclusion: A healthy person feels comfortable in the humidity range from 30% to 70% (comfortable humidity). Deviations from these indicators can lead both to poor health and fatigue, and to a serious deterioration in health.
What is the effect of air humidity on human well-being?
Dry air dehydrates the body and dries out the skin.
Prolonged humidity below 30% dries out the skin.
At low humidity, high air temperature is easier to bear due to the intensive evaporation process. Therefore, in Central Asia and in the Crimea, due to lower air humidity, at the same air temperature in summer as on the Caucasian coast of the Black Sea, it seems to feel less hot (more comfortable).
The adverse effect of dry air is manifested only at a relative humidity of less than 10% and is expressed in a feeling of dryness in the mouth, throat, nose. Dry air is especially dangerous for patients with bronchial asthma, they have a general deterioration in well-being, attacks are possible. In general, the influence of very dry air on physiological processes is not as dangerous as humid air.
Moist air softens the skin and hydrates the body.
High humidity combined with low air temperature helps to cool the body. This is due to the fact that the heat capacity of water vapor is greater than the heat capacity of air, so more heat is spent on heating cold damp air. As a result of the loss of moisture from the air, the skin and clothing fabrics are moistened and become more thermally conductive (the thermal conductivity of water is 25 times greater than the thermal conductivity of air). Therefore, low humidity in Siberia and on mountain peaks makes it easier to endure low air temperatures. And in Sochi, due to the high humidity, on the contrary, even with a relatively slight frost, it feels colder.
At air temperatures above 25°C, high humidity contributes to overheating of the body due to the difficulty of heat transfer by evaporating water from the surface of the skin. As a result of overheating, a deterioration in well-being is observed, a feeling of heaviness and stuffiness appears, efficiency decreases, etc. Patients with hypertension, atherosclerosis, people with various cardiovascular diseases especially react strongly to high humidity. With very humid air (above 80%), they may experience exacerbations and seizures.
Conclusion: Humid air is harmful to the body both at high and low temperatures. Temperature fluctuations in a dry climate are more easily tolerated than in a humid one.
Countries with a temperature of 25 degrees. Seven places on the planet where the weather is always perfect
You always want to have a rest – both in summer and in winter – and preferably in warm and good weather. But there are not so many places on earth that have good cloudless and warm weather all year round. If you are satisfied with the temperature of 21-26 degrees, then we invite you to find out about 8 places in the world where such a blessed climate is constantly maintained, well, maybe plus or minus a few degrees.
1. San Diego
In California Paradise, the temperature rarely rises above 27 degrees in the summer, while in winter it is usually between 18 and 21 degrees. Approximately 300 sunny days a year are ready to shelter and warm with gentle rays. San Diego is not only great weather and a pleasant climate, but also amusement parks, miles of beaches, an abundance of waves that surfers and professionals can ride, as well as natural landscapes.
2. Santa Barbara
Santa Barbara – famous from the series attracts with its picturesque California coastline. Winter temperatures are only 10 degrees below the pleasant summer temperature of 20-25 degrees, and for an evening walk in December or January, just a light jacket is enough. Santa Barbara still has slightly more rainfall than San Diego, but this only helps to emphasize the local picturesque and flourishing landscape.
3. Canary Islands
This earthly paradise off the west coast of Africa, where temperatures rarely rise to 30 degrees in summer, while you can still enjoy daytime temperatures of up to 21 degrees in winter, attracts many tourists. Apart from a few exceptions (namely, the northern part of Tenerife), the local climate is quite arid and sunny, which gave the islands the name “Land of Eternal Spring”.
4. Sao Paulo
Famous Brazilian paradise with endless summer. Thanks to its location far from the water and quite high above sea level, this huge metropolis boasts some of the most pleasant weather of any city in the country. During the year, the average temperature changes little, in January and February it rises only to 27 degrees, while in July and August it does not fall below 20.
5. Kunming, China
Yunnan enjoys the advantage of high altitude location (over 1,800 meters) and natural surroundings. During most heat peaks, temperatures stay in the 30s, while summer averages are 21-26 degrees. Thanks to the pleasant weather, the city of Kunming was given the same name as a number of other places on our list – “City of Eternal Spring”.
6. Lihue, Hawaii
The weather in Hawaii does not change much throughout the year. Although this American state is by far the warmest in terms of annual temperatures, it never gets very hot there. In Lihue, the highest temperature ever recorded was only 32 degrees. As anyone who has spent long enough on the islands can tell you, it rains often, but most of the precipitation falls in the form of light and short-lived downpours. Severe storms also occur, with most cities experiencing severe weather several times a year, mostly during the winter months. However, a vacation in Hawaii is unlikely to ever be a failure, and the temperature will certainly remain in that pleasant range between “too hot” and “too cool”.
7. Medellin, Colombia
The Colombian city of Medellin, located at an altitude of almost 1500 meters above sea level, can offer almost ideal temperatures all year round. Average fluctuations are only about 4 degrees, while the temperature remains within 27 throughout the year. Whenever you visit, the mercury drops to around 15 at night.
8. Durban, South Africa
Durban, a growing city on South Africa’s east coast, is a popular holiday destination thanks to its extensive beaches and pleasant temperatures. In the summertime of the Southern Hemisphere, the local temperature reaches 30 degrees, and it often rains. However, storms usually pass in the afternoon and evening, which means that it is dry during the daytime. The winter months are also warm and sunny, with temperatures rising to 23 degrees during the daytime and little chance of rain. The temperate climate means that any time of the year is quite suitable for visiting, but the winter months from June to August are especially pleasant in Durban.
Today, under the snow falling slowly outside the window, we want to tell you about those places where “eternal May” reigns. Do you think this is a poetic exaggeration? And here it is not.
There are many different and amazing places on our planet. Among them there are those where beautiful sunny weather reigns all year round. And this is reality!
We bring to your attention the 10 sunniest places on the planet.
San Diego, USA
A magnificent city on the coast with a fabulous climate: in summer the temperature is no higher than 27 degrees, in winter it is no lower than 18. Isn’t it magical? And add 300 days of sun per year. It is not for nothing that travel companies literally make a cult of local climatic conditions. Here, perhaps, the best weather in the world!
Santa Barbara, USA
Another wonderful town in California. It is slightly cooler here in winter – you will have to put on a sweater for an evening exercise. This is a city with a history, it is beautiful and well-groomed, therefore it is attractive not only for its climate.
This chain of islands belongs to Spain and borders Africa. A wonderful climate is not preserved everywhere – this is due to the fact that the terrain here is mountainous. As you know, there is no mild climate in the mountains. But off the coast – a paradise for vacationers all year round.
Pablo Picasso’s birthplace – Malaga is a city with a deep history. Here you can walk along the old streets all year round, taking only a hat with you. In winter, however, the sun does not appear for long. But such places are beautiful in the moonlight.
Sao Paulo, Brazil
Brazil’s largest coastal city. The climate there is mild, non-arid, storms are very rare. Unlike other Brazilian cities, it is not suffocatingly hot here in summer. And winter (southern hemisphere) is not winter at all, because temperatures do not fall below 20 degrees. Of course, with a plus sign.
The weather on the coast of the continent is very comfortable – no droughts, no desert storms. In the main city, it fluctuates between 20-25 degrees, in the winter nighttime it is not lower than 10.
China’s weather conditions are very different – in some areas it snows in winter, in others it rains heavily. In this metropolis, they are the most comfortable: in summer, when all the inhabitants of neighboring cities melt from the heat, here, due to the high location, very attractive weather remains.
A great place to relax – the temperature is very comfortable in summer, and the rains, which fall a lot, fall in the form of short and bright showers. In winter, however, local residents often suffer from storms. But this is in winter.
A picturesque mountainous city, pleasant for rest and visiting at any time of the year. The temperature fluctuates only within 4 degrees. But it’s not uncommon to catch rain here.
Durban, South Africa
The city is located on the east coast, it is famous for its excellent beaches and wonderful weather. The period from June to August is especially good for relaxation.
If you are already tired of the cold Russian winter and want some sun and warmth, then we offer you to get acquainted with places where summer is all year round and maybe even choose something suitable for yourself and go on a trip, if, of course, finances allow you.
Cape Verde (Cape Verde Islands). Air temperature in January + 20-25 degrees Celsius, water – 20-21.
Seychelles. Air temperature in January + 24-30 degrees Celsius, water – 26-30.
Mozambique. Air temperature in January + 26-30 degrees Celsius, water – 26-30.
Oman. Air temperature in January + 20-25 degrees Celsius, water – 21-24.
Costa Rica. Air temperature in January + 25-28 degrees Celsius, water – 26-28.
Langkawi (Malaysia). Air temperature in January + 30-33 degrees Celsius, water – 28-30.
Gran Canaria (Spain). Air temperature in January + 18-22 degrees Celsius, water -19-21.
Riviera Maya (Mexico). Air temperature in January + 26-30 degrees Celsius, water – 26-28.
Sri Lanka. Air temperature in January + 30-34 degrees Celsius, water – 27-30.
Tenerife (Spain). Air temperature in January + 16-23 degrees Celsius, water -19-22.
Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Air temperature in January + 26-30 degrees Celsius, water – 24-26.
Vietnam. Air temperature in January + 28-36 degrees Celsius, water – 23-30.
Cuba. Air temperature in January + 24-26 degrees Celsius, water – 24-26.
Lanzarote (Spain). Air temperature in January + 18-20 degrees Celsius, water – 19-21.
Antigua and Barbuda. Air temperature in January + 25-28 degrees Celsius, water – 24-26.
Gambia. Air temperature in January + 25-27 degrees Celsius, water – 23-25.
Barbados. Air temperature in January + 25-30 degrees Celsius, water – 25-27.
Saint Lucia (island nation in the Caribbean). Air temperature in January + 26-30 degrees Celsius, water – 26-30.
Abu Dhabi (UAE). Air temperature in January + 24-27 degrees Celsius, water – 25-27.
Cambodia. Air temperature in January + 30-35 degrees Celsius, water – 28-30.
While the people of Kiev are trying to hide from the rain, the editors recall 5 ideal corners on the planet where such inconveniences do not threaten you under any circumstances. Dream or act – the choice is yours.
The third largest island in the Hawaiian archipelago is a branch of heaven on earth for Americans and beyond. Of all the Hawaiian Islands, this is the most stable and favorable climate, and the duration of the rainy season, which is obligatory for the tropics, is minimal. The air temperature fluctuates between 20-29 degrees all year round.
One of the largest cities in Andalusia, known mainly for being the birthplace of Pablo Picasso. However, even if you are not a fan of cubism, you probably have nothing against the mild and warm climate of the Mediterranean coast. Sunny days in a year – the absolute majority.
Spain is definitely lucky: in addition to the homeland of Picasso, it also owns this archipelago, whose name has become a household name for a paradise holiday. Palm trees, sea, mountains and warm (not lower than 20 degrees Celsius) ocean throughout the year. Yes, canaries were indeed brought from here.
The subtropical climate of the Australian capital means warm winters and cool summers. Snow was last seen here in 1836, and the temperature stays around 12-25 degrees Celsius all year round. Plus about 340 days of sunshine a year: isn’t that the perfect place?
/ Places on Earth where summer is all year round /
The harsh Russian climate makes us look forward to summer every year and dream of places where summer never stops. Consider countries in which the temperature during the year rarely drops below +20 degrees.
India is a very colorful country that attracts millions of travelers and tourists every year. It cannot be treated neutrally: either you will love India with all your heart and will return here again and again, or it will cause a storm of negative emotions.
Needed. The most popular resort is Goa.
The best time to visit the country is from October to May. The average daily temperature at this time is +30- +32 degrees.
Thailand is a favorite country for Russian tourists. Gentle sea, an abundance of fruits, low prices and summer all year round – what else is needed for happiness?
Citizens of the Russian Federation do not need a visa to Thailand, they are allowed to stay in the country without a visa for up to 30 days.
The most popular resorts are Koh Samui, Phuket and Pattaya. You can relax here all year round, the daytime temperature rarely drops below +28 – +30. Even during the rainy season from March to October, there are many places in Thailand where you can relax without fear of rain.
The Indonesian island of Bali also attracted Russian tourists. The friendliness of the locals, beautiful nature, magnificent beaches and excellent fishing – this is what attracts people from all over the world to this island.
The holiday season lasts all year round. Even the period of rains from November to March cannot scare away vacationers from snow-white beaches, because the water temperature is not lower than +25-+28 degrees.
A visa valid for 30 days is issued to Russian citizens upon arrival in Bali. The most popular resorts are Kuta, Seminyak, Jimbaran, Amed.
In Australia, things are different from ours. When we have winter, they have summer; when we have summer, they also have summer. Between November and February, beautiful Mediterranean weather sets in on the southern coast of the country, suitable for swimming and complete relaxation. Australia is a real paradise for surfers, but even if you are not a surfer, watching the conquerors of the waves is also a pleasure.
Needed. The most popular resorts: Sydney, Tasmania, Great Barrier Reef, Perth.
Anyone who has visited the Seychelles is sure that he has been to paradise. Beautiful beaches, gentle sea, shady alleys, calmness and leisurelyness – all this creates a unique atmosphere of idleness and tranquility.
The season here lasts from May to October, the daytime temperature does not fall below +28 degrees. Winters are also warm, but rainfall increases and humidity rises. However, this is by no means a hindrance for true admirers of the islands.
Citizens of the Russian Federation do not need a visa. Popular beaches: Praslin, Mahe, La Digue, Desroches.
The Dominican Republic is a remote alluring country famous for its endless beaches, excellent fishing and the secrets that the Caribbean Sea hides. A paradise for divers and adventurers. Hospitable locals, delicious local cuisine and incendiary Dominican rhythms await every visitor who falls in love with this country from the first minute. The season lasts from December to March, this is the most favorable time for recreation, the temperature is stable at around +30.
Visa is issued upon arrival in the Dominican Republic. Best beaches: Puerto Plata, Cabarete, Boca Chico, Samana.
The Maldives is a wonderful Eden accessible to any mortal. People come there to relax, forget about problems and enjoy peace. The only thing to remember is that this is a Muslim country, the islands have strict rules of conduct, non-compliance with which threatens with fines and even imprisonment.
The best time to relax here is from November to April, the temperature rarely drops below +30 degrees.
Russian citizens do not need a visa. Famous beaches: Male, Ari Atoll, Sun Island.
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ranking of the driest and wettest regions of Ukraine — Latifundist.com
Wet business: rating of the driest and wettest regions of Ukraine — Latifundist.com
May 22, 2020, 09:00
Climate horror stories — the desert instead of the steppe and subtropics in Kyiv — no longer look like fantasy. According to a study by NASA and the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the past decade was the warmest on record (since 1880). The year 2016 was the hottest year in terms of average temperature in the world. Second place 2019year. Moreover, in Ukraine over the past year, temperature records were broken more than 30 times, sometimes by 2-2.5 °C.
Agrarians were among the first to feel climate change in Ukraine. If earlier sugar beets, corn and soybeans were grown in the southern and central regions, now, due to lack of moisture, these crops are sown in the northern and western regions, where there is more precipitation and, accordingly, due to the optimal balance of heat and air humidity, good yields can be obtained. .
This is evidenced by the data of the independent agro-weather service Meteo Pharm. So, in 2019, the least precipitation was recorded in Odessa, Cherkasy and Kherson regions, and the most “wet” were Lviv, Ivano-Frankivsk and Transcarpathian regions.
Made with Flourish
Total rainfall in Ukraine was three quarters of the norm. The hydrothermal moisture coefficient (HTC), which shows the level of moisture availability of the territory, was the lowest in the southern regions of the country. The maximum air temperatures were also recorded there. The highest GKT values were recorded in the western regions. The soil moisture index in most regions is one of the lowest in the last 10 years.
With the help of AgroPogoda Ukraine updated meteography, we analyzed which regions were the driest in 2019, and where there was enough moisture, and how the weather conditions in each of the regions have changed over the past ten years. The rating is based on the amount of precipitation over the past year.
Natalia Rodak, Latifundist.com
Total precipitation, mm
Total precipitation, mm: 282.1
Maximum air temperature, °C: 40
Average air temperature, °C:
Soil moisture, %: 18
The first place in the ranking of the most arid regions goes to the Odessa region, where 282. 1 mm of precipitation was recorded – this is the lowest figure in the last ten years. For comparison: in 2010, the amount of precipitation in the region was 530 mm, five years later – 363 mm. During this time, the soil moisture index also changed. Until 2018, it was in the range of 24-20%. It fell another 2% last year. The maximum air temperature was 40°C in July and the minimum (-14°C) in January. The hottest months were spring and the first two summer months. At this time, the GKT index was 0.5-0.2. In August, when there were precipitations, it rose to the level of 0.7. But in September-October it again fell to 0.2.
Total precipitation, mm: 297.7
Maximum air temperature, °C: 36.4
Soil moisture, %: 22
You hardly expected to see Cherkasy in the top three of the driest regions. But the reality is that the amount of precipitation in the region is decreasing every year. In 2010, 509 fell heremm of precipitation, in 2015 – 430 and last year – 297.7 mm. Soil moisture was 20%. The GKT index in the spring months was at the level of 0.7, and in the summer, due to the lack of precipitation, it fell to 0.1. The maximum air temperature was recorded in August (36.4 °C), the minimum (-17 °C) in January. Due to the severe soil drought in the summer and autumn months, which covered more than 80% of the area, the farmers of this region sowed only 152 thousand hectares of winter crops. In previous years, more than 200 thousand hectares were occupied with wheat.
Total precipitation, mm: 307.7
Maximum air temperature, °C: 38.1
Soil moisture, %: 20
307.7 mm of precipitation fell in the Kherson region, while nine years ago it was 511 mm. During this time, the soil moisture index also fell: from 23% to 20%. The GKT index did not change during the spring and summer months – 0.3, and only in October it increased to 0.6. The region suffers from drought year after year. The strongest was recorded in 2007, when there was no precipitation for 40-50 days. Then 253 thousand hectares of crops were in a critical condition, 143 thousand hectares were not subject to reseeding. Along with the lack of rain, Kherson agrarians suffer from desertification of the territory and cutting down forest protection belts. So, last year, the crops of rapeseed and mustard suffered from the farmers of the Golopristansky district due to dry winds that came from the Oleshkovsky Sands.
Read on the topic: Dust in the eyes: where are dust storms and how agriculture
Sediments, mm: 322 ,4
Maximum air temperature, °C: 38.8
Average air temperature, °C: 12. 7
Soil moisture, %: 20
10 years decreased from 515 mm to 322.4 mm. The soil moisture index also fell – from 24% to 20% in 2019year. The weather during the summer months was unstable: dry days alternated with intense rains. In early June, in nine districts of the region, rainfall and hail damaged agricultural crops on a total area of 2763 hectares. Despite such weather disasters, the largest harvest of early grains and legumes in the last 29 years was gathered here. This was facilitated by the expansion of sown areas for wheat.
Total precipitation, mm: 324.9
Maximum air temperature, °C: 36.8
Average air temperature, °C:
10.9 9020 , %: 22
A downward trend in precipitation is also observed in the Kyiv region. In 2019, the amount of precipitation was 324.9 mm, while in 2010 – 491 mm, and in 2015 – 414 mm. The soil moisture index decreased from 25% to 22%. GKT last year was highest in May at 0.7 and lowest in August at 0.3. The maximum air temperature (36.8 °C) was recorded in August. The average monthly temperature was 11 °C. In some farms, farmers noted that due to the two-week heat in June (30-35 ° C), the sunflower root system did not go deep, but began to develop in the surface layer.
Total precipitation, mm: 331.2
Maximum air temperature, °C: 36.4 9009 : 10.3
Soil moisture, %: 21
Last year was one of the driest for the Chernihiv region over the last ten years. 331.2 mm of precipitation fell during the year. Prior to this, 316 mm of precipitation was recorded only in 2014. In other years, the level of precipitation was kept at around 400-600 mm. The average ground temperature was 9°C, and humidity – 24%. The maximum air temperature (36.4 °C) was recorded in August, and the minimum (-18 °C) was recorded in January. The GKT index was the lowest in August – 0.1.
The amount of precipitation, mm: 339
Maximum air temperature, ° C: 35.3
The average air temperature, ° C: 11, 11, 11, 11, 11, 11, 11, 1
Soil moisture, %: 21
In the Poltava region, the amount of precipitation differs from year to year. If we analyze the last 10 years, then the driest years for the region were 2011 (387 mm), 2013-2014 (366 mm and 364 mm, respectively), and 2019 – 339 mm. In other years, this figure was at the level of 400-683 mm. The average soil temperature for ten years has not changed much – 10-11 ° C, but the soil moisture has decreased from 25% to 21%. Climate change in the region was among the first to be felt by farmers. Due to drought and a large deficit of moisture in the soil in 2015, only 52% of crops sprouted in the region. In 2017, about 1 thousand hectares of rapeseed crops died for this reason.
Total precipitation, mm: 339.7
Maximum air temperature, °C: 38.8
Soil moisture, %: 21
The July showers caused damage to grain crops: 4.5 thousand hectares of crops were flooded and washed away. The maximum air temperature (38.8 °C) was recorded in August. In the autumn months, temperatures also broke records: 34 ° C in September and 29°C in October. Because of the drought, the Vinnitsa farmers had to delay the sowing of winter crops. The average soil temperature in the region has not changed in recent years – 11 °C.
Total precipitation, mm: 342.6
Maximum air temperature, °C: 35.2
Soil moisture, %: 23
year – 342.6 mm. For comparison: in 2016, the amount of precipitation in the region was 730 mm, and in 2018 – 461 mm. The average annual temperature is the lowest in Ukraine – 10 °C. GKT last year was highest in May and lowest in early August at 0.8 and 0.1 respectively. Despite heavy May rains, high temperatures set in June, which led to the rapid evaporation of moisture from the soil. All this could not but affect the crops of rapeseed and wheat. Farmers complained that the plants gradually began to lose turgor and turn yellow. Despite this, Sumy farmers harvested 4.43 million tons of grain from an area of 680.5 thousand hectares.
Total precipitation, mm: 344. 4
Maximum air temperature, °C: 36.9 9004 : 11.9
Soil moisture, %: 20
In the Kirovograd region in 2019, 344.4 mm of precipitation was recorded. This is the lowest figure in the last five years. The greatest amount of precipitation fell in May and August (48 mm and 47 mm, respectively), and the least – in the autumn months – 7 mm in September and 12 mm in October. Maximum air temperature (36.9°C) was recorded in June and August, the minimum (-17 °C) in January. The average soil temperature was 10 °C.
Total precipitation, mm: 352.7
Maximum air temperature, °C: 37.9
Soil moisture, %: 18
In the Nikolaev region, there is a tendency to reduce the amount of precipitation. For example, in 2010, the amount of precipitation was 566 mm, in 2015 – 404 mm, and in 2019year – 352. 7 mm. In winter, the maximum temperatures reached 16 °C, and in summer – 38 °C. The average annual temperature is 12.9 °C. The maximum GKT values were recorded in August – 1.1. At the same time, 78 mm of precipitation fell. Soil moisture is one of the lowest in the country – 18%. The average soil temperature was 13°C.
Total precipitation, mm: 357.6
Maximum air temperature, °C: 37.3
Average air temperature, °C: 12.3
Soil moisture, %: 21
the last five years – 357.6 mm. In winter, the maximum temperatures reached 15 °C, in summer – 37.3 °C. Soil moisture – 21% (in the summer and autumn months, this figure was the lowest). Last year, a record grain harvest was harvested in the region – 4.22 million tons. Farmers noted that this was facilitated by a mild winter.
Reported . ..
The amount of precipitation, mm: 365.3
Maximum air temperature, ° C: 36
The average air temperature, ° C: 10.8
Soil moisture, %: 22
Over the past 10 years, the least amount of precipitation in the Zhytomyr region fell in 2011 – 381 mm and in 2019 – 365.3 mm. Last year, the maximum air temperature of 36 °C was recorded in August. In winter, the maximum temperature was 13 °C. Soil moisture – 22% (since 2015 this figure has been decreasing). The average soil temperature is 11 °C. The region’s GPC was highest in May (1.7) and lowest in September and October (0.2).
Total precipitation, mm: 370.8
Maximum air temperature, °C: 37.9
Soil moisture, %: 21
370.8 mm of precipitation fell in the Donetsk region. Over the past 9 years, this is one of the lowest indicators – 375 mm of precipitation fell in 2012 and 2013, earlier this figure was at the level of 400-559mm. The maximum air temperature (38 °C) was recorded in August. In winter, the maximum temperature was 14 °C. The GPC index was highest in May and July (0.6) and lowest in June and September (0.1 and 0.2, respectively). In the spring of 2018, the region experienced a severe drought not seen since 1971. There was no precipitation throughout April and May. The harvest of winter wheat and spring barley was saved only due to the fact that there was a snowy winter and moisture was retained in the soil for a long time.
Total precipitation, mm: 373.1
Maximum air temperature, °C: 35.4
Soil moisture, %: 22
In Kharkiv region, 373.1 mm of precipitation fell during the year – this is the lowest figure for the last 9 years. The greatest amount of precipitation fell in the spring months (April-May 45 mm) and in July (50 mm), and the least – in September (11 mm). In the summer months, the maximum temperature reached 35 °C. In winter, the maximum air temperature (14 °C) was recorded in December. The soil moisture index is the lowest since 2010 – 22%. A record air-ground drought was recorded in the region in 2018. Local meteorologists said there had not been such a drought since 1849.of the year. Due to the lack of rain and high temperatures in July-August, there was no moisture in the soil, and air humidity was less than 13%.
Total precipitation, mm: 403.3
Maximum air temperature, °C Average air temperature: 36.8 9029 : 11
Soil moisture, %: 22
403.3 mm of precipitation fell in the Khmelnitsky region last year – one of the lowest rates in the last 9years (326 mm fell in 2011). Soil moisture was 22%. The GKT index in May was one of the highest in the country – 2.2 (100 mm of precipitation fell at the same time). In June it was 0.8, and in July-August it fell to 0.3. October was the driest month with 4 mm of precipitation. The autumn drought took away almost all the moisture from the topsoil, so the farmers sown grain in dry land. The maximum temperature was recorded in August (36.8 °C), the minimum (-10 °C) in January.
Total precipitation, mm: 436.5
Maximum air temperature, °C: 34.7
Soil moisture, %: 23
5 mm. Nevertheless, last year the region was in the top ten of the wettest regions. May turned out to be rainy when 129mm of precipitation. This month, GKT was one of the highest in the country – 2.5. Rains that continued for several days led to an increase in water in the rivers. In the Rokitnovsky district, the Lva River overflowed its banks, flooding households. The minimum air temperature (-9 °C) was recorded in January, and the maximum (34.7 °C) in August. The average monthly temperature has remained virtually unchanged since 2005 – 10-11 °C.
The amount of precipitation, mm: 448.6
The maximum air temperature, ° C: 38
The average air temperature, ° C: 11
Soil humidity, %: 23 23 23 23 23 23
Ternopil region is also included in the rating of the “wettest” regions in 2019. But, if we analyze the past decade, then 2015 was rich in precipitation, when 932 mm of precipitation fell in the region (most in Ukraine), and 2019 was the “driest”year with an indicator of 448.6 mm. The maximum air temperature (38 °C) was recorded in August, and the minimum (-9 °C) was recorded in January. The average monthly air temperature over the past five years is at around 10-11 °C. At the end of April-May, the GKT indicator was 2.8. At the same time, 133 mm of precipitation fell in the region. The incessant rains caused the rivers to flood. A heavy downpour with hail, which took place at the end of April, damaged agricultural crops on an area of 2532 hectares. From August to October, the GKT fell to 0.2. These were the driest months in the region.
Total precipitation, mm: 456.6
Maximum air temperature, °C: 38003 9002 : 11.6
Soil moisture, %: 21
Over the past decade, the least amount of precipitation in the region was recorded in 2011 – 332 mm, in 2015 – 379 and in 2019 – 456.6 mm. The region was heavily “flooded” in May, when 110 mm of precipitation fell. June was “wet” too (57 mm). The GKT index at this time was 1. 8-0.7. Last year there were enough natural disasters in the region. The May showers caused the rivers to overflow. Household farms and crops in the fields were flooded. In the same month, residents of the Glybotsky district could observe such a rare weather phenomenon for our country as a tornado. In August, hail the size of a chicken egg fell in the town of Strozhinets.
Total precipitation, mm: 458.5
Maximum air temperature, °C: 36.3
Soil moisture, %: 21
The amount of precipitation was 458.5 mm. The smallest amount of precipitation over the past decade in the region was recorded in 2013 – 384 mm, and the largest – in 2016 (587 mm). January last year turned out to be snowy, as evidenced by 91 mm precipitation. The spring months also turned out to be “productive” for precipitation (60 mm in April and 84 mm in May). June (10 mm), August (8 mm) and October (12 mm) were dry. During the summer, the maximum air temperature was 36 °C. The minimum temperature (-19 °C) was recorded in January. In the last two years, there has been a downward trend in the soil moisture index – 22-21% (for comparison: in 2010 this indicator was at the level of 26%).
Total precipitation, mm: 491.6
Maximum air temperature, °C: 34.5
Average air temperature, °C: 903 904 290 Soil moisture, %: 23
491.6 mm of precipitation fell in the Volyn region in 2019. Since 2010, this figure has been one of the smallest (412 mm in 2011 and 438 mm in 2015). During the year, the least precipitation was recorded in February (12 mm), and the largest amount was recorded in May (125 mm). Heavy May rains led to flooding in the region. The Western Bug, Styr, Turia, Stokho rivers overflowed their banks, flooding households and household plots. The average air temperature was 11°C, with maximum temperatures recorded in July (34.5°C) and minimum temperatures in January (-10°C). The average ground temperature was 11°C (in summer the ground warmed up to 21°C).
Total precipitation, mm: 537.4
Maximum air temperature, °C: 34.4
Soil moisture, %: 24
For the last two years, Lviv region has been ranked third in the ranking of the most “wet” regions. Last year, 537.4 mm of precipitation fell here. May turned out to be especially rainy, when 165 mm of precipitation fell. As in neighboring areas, heavy rains caused the rivers to overflow. The maximum air temperature was recorded in August (34.4 ° C) – the minimum value in Ukraine, and the minimum (-9°C) in February and December. The average temperature in the region was 11 °C. But the average ground temperature was one of the lowest in the country – 9 ° C.
The amount of precipitation, mm: 544
Maximum air temperature, ° C: 38.2
The average air temperature, ° C: 11.2
Soil moisture, %: 22
Last year, Ivano-Frankivsk region was a record holder in terms of weather conditions. In May, the most precipitation fell in Ukraine – 178 mm. In total, 544 mm of precipitation was recorded here during the year. In the ranking of the most “wet” areas, we give it an honorable second place. And it hasn’t changed since 2017. In May, the highest GKT in the country was also recorded – 3.4. The maximum air temperature (38.2 °C) recorded in August is also one of the highest in the country. The minimum temperature (-11 °C) was recorded in January and December. The average air temperature is 11 °C.
Reports . ..
Total precipitation, mm: 761.5
Maximum air temperature, °C: 38.4 9002 : 12.4
Soil moisture, %: 24
In the rating of the “wettest” regions, the Transcarpathian region occupies an honorable first place. The amount of precipitation was 761.5 mm. Moreover, since 2010, it has lost the first place in this rating only once – in 2015 to the Ternopil region, where 932 mm precipitation. Most precipitation was recorded in May – 174 mm. As a result, the water level in the Uzh River basin exceeded the historical maximum (349.8 cm relative to the zero point). Prior to this, the highest water level was recorded here during the catastrophic flood in 1998 – 348 cm relative to the zero post. 1988 hectares of agricultural land and 170 hectares of pastures were flooded.
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In the dry residue.