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Distance from africa to europe: Distance Between Europe and Africa

Опубликовано: April 14, 2023 в 4:59 pm


Категории: Miscellaneous

Distance between Africa and Europe is 8686 KM / 5397.4 miles

Africa is located in South_Africa at the longitude of 34.51 and latitude of -8.79. Europe is located in France at the longitude of 15.26 and latitude of 54.51 .

  • Driving Distance : 12364 KM and 43 meters / 7682.7 miles.
  • Straight Line Distance : 7267 KM and 400 meters / 4515.8 miles.
  • Travel time : 247 hours and 14 minutes.
  • Direction and bearing : North side, 345 degree.

Distance between Africa and Europe

The total straight line distance between Africa and Europe is 7267 KM (kilometers) and 400 meters. The miles based distance from Africa to Europe is 4515.8 miles. This is a straight line distance and so most of the time the actual travel distance between Africa and Europe may be higher or vary due to curvature of the road .

The driving distance or the travel distance between Africa to Europe is 12364 KM and 43 meters. The mile based, road distance between these two travel point is 7682.7 miles.

Time Difference between Africa and Europe

The sun rise time difference or the actual time difference between Africa and Europe is 1 hours , 16 minutes and 59 seconds. Note: Africa and Europe time calculation is based on UTC time of the particular city. It may vary from country standard time , local time etc.

Africa To Europe travel time

Africa is located around 7267 KM away from Europe so if you travel at the consistent speed of 50 KM per hour you can reach Europe in 247 hours and 14 minutes. Your Europe travel time may vary due to your bus speed, train speed or depending upon the vehicle you use.

Midway point between Africa To Europe

Mid way point or halfway place is a center point between source and destination location. The mid way point between Africa and Europe is situated at the latitude of 23. 135414028063 and the longitude of 27.410258684686. If you need refreshment you can stop around this midway place, after checking the safety,feasibility, etc.

Africa To Europe road map

Europe is located nearly North side to Africa. The bearing degree from Africa To Europe is 345 ° degree. The given North direction from Africa is only approximate. The given google map shows the direction in which the blue color line indicates road connectivity to Europe . In the travel map towards Europe you may find en route hotels, tourist spots, picnic spots, petrol pumps and various religious places. The given google map is not comfortable to view all the places as per your expectation then to view street maps, local places see our detailed map here.

Africa To Europe driving direction

The following diriving direction guides you to reach Europe from Africa. Our straight line distance may vary from google distance.

Travel Distance from Africa

The onward journey distance may vary from downward distance due to one way traffic road. This website gives the travel information and distance for all the cities in the globe. For example if you have any queries like what is the distance between Africa and Europe ? and How far is Africa from Europe?. Driving distance between Africa and Europe. Africa to Europe distance by road. Distance between Africa and Europe is 8686 KM / 5397.4 miles. distance between Africa and Europe by road. It will answer those queires aslo. Some popular travel routes and their links are given here :-

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Historical isolation versus recent long-distance connections between Europe and Africa in bifid toadflaxes (Linaria sect. Versicolores)

. 2011;6(7):e22234.

doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0022234.

Epub 2011 Jul 14.

Mario Fernández-Mazuecos 
, Pablo Vargas



  • PMID:


  • PMCID:


  • DOI:


Free PMC article

Mario Fernández-Mazuecos et al.

PLoS One.


Free PMC article

. 2011;6(7):e22234.

doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0022234.

Epub 2011 Jul 14.


Mario Fernández-Mazuecos 
, Pablo Vargas


  • PMID:


  • PMCID:


  • DOI:




Due to its complex, dynamic and well-known paleogeography, the Mediterranean region provides an ideal framework to study the colonization history of plant lineages. The genus Linaria has its diversity centre in the Mediterranean region, both in Europe and Africa. The last land connection between both continental plates occurred during the Messinian Salinity Crisis, in the late Miocene (5.96 to 5.33 Ma).

Methodology/principal findings:

We analyzed the colonization history of Linaria sect. Versicolores (bifid toadflaxes), which includes c. 22 species distributed across the Mediterranean, including Europe and Africa. Two cpDNA regions (rpl32-trnL(UAG) and trnK-matK) were sequenced from 66 samples of Linaria. We conducted phylogenetic, dating, biogeographic and phylogeographic analyses to reconstruct colonization patterns in space and time. Four major clades were found: two of them exclusively contain Iberian samples, while the other two include northern African samples together with some European samples. The bifid toadflaxes have been split in African and European clades since the late Miocene, and most lineage and speciation differentiation occurred during the Pliocene and Quaternary. We have strongly inferred four events of post-Messinian colonization following long-distance dispersal from northern Africa to the Iberian Peninsula, Sicily and Greece.


The current distribution of Linaria sect. Versicolores lineages is explained by both ancient isolation between African and European populations and recent events of long-distance dispersal over sea barriers. This result provides new evidence for the biogeographic complexity of the Mediterranean region.

Conflict of interest statement

Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.


Figure 1. Plastid phylogeny of bifid toadflaxes.

Figure 1. Plastid phylogeny of bifid toadflaxes.

Phylogenetic relationships of 57 samples representing 25 species…

Figure 1. Plastid phylogeny of bifid toadflaxes.

Phylogenetic relationships of 57 samples representing 25 species and subspecies of Linaria sect. Versicolores based on the combined analysis of cpDNA regions rpl32-trnL
UAG and trnK-matK. The majority-rule consensus tree obtained in the Bayesian analysis is shown. Numbers above branches are Bayesian posterior probabilities. Numbers below branches are maximum likelihood/maximum parsimony bootstrap values. A hyphen (–) indicates no bootstrap support over 50%. Populations of the same species are numbered as in Table S1. Geographic location of sect. Versicolores samples is shown in brackets. I – Iberian Peninsula; A – northern Africa; S – Sicily; G – Greece.

Figure 2. Molecular dating analysis.

Maximum clade…

Figure 2. Molecular dating analysis.

Maximum clade credibility tree produced by relaxed molecular-clock analysis of…

Figure 2. Molecular dating analysis.

Maximum clade credibility tree produced by relaxed molecular-clock analysis of rpl32-trnL
UAG and trnK-matK sequences in BEAST, excluding sequence identities of Linaria sect. Versicolores and the outgroup. Node bars represent the 95% highest posterior density intervals for the divergence time estimates of clades with posterior probabilities above 0.50. Values above branches indicate Bayesian posterior probabilities. Major clades of the study group are indicated.

Figure 3. Hypothesis of colonization history based…

Figure 3. Hypothesis of colonization history based on DEC analysis.

(A) Biogeographic reconstruction based on…

Figure 3. Hypothesis of colonization history based on DEC analysis.

(A) Biogeographic reconstruction based on dispersal-extinction-cladogenesis modelling implemented in Lagrange using the single MCC tree from the BEAST analysis (Fig. 2) after pruning outgroup taxa. Coloured squares represent maximum-likelihood range inheritance scenarios reconstructed under model M3 for nodes with PP above 0.5. Ranges inherited from widespread ancestors following cladogenesis are shown at the base of diverging branches, while single-area ancestral ranges are shown at nodes. Inferred events of dispersal along branches are also illustrated. When a node has alternative scenarios within 2 log-likelihood units of the optimal reconstruction, the relative probability (fraction of the global likelihood) for the optimal reconstruction is indicated. Given the relevance of the root node for the early colonization history of the group, the two alternative reconstructions are displayed, and the dispersal event inferred under the second best scenario (relative probability 0.36) is shown in brackets along the branch leading to subsect. Versicolores. (B–D) Hypothesis of colonization history of Linaria sect. Versicolores across the Mediterranean basin since the Late Miocene, based on phylogenetic, dating and biogeographic reconstruction results, as well as geological information. Coloured squares represent the range occupied by the group during each period, and arrows indicate hypothetical colonization events. Paleogeographic maps are based upon (white – emerged areas; grey – submerged areas; lined – desiccating areas). Areas delimited for reconstructions are displayed in E. I – Iberian Peninsula; A – northern Africa; S – Sicily; G – Greece.

Figure 4. Uncertainty of area reconstruction at…

Figure 4. Uncertainty of area reconstruction at the root.

A sample of 100 trees from…

Figure 4. Uncertainty of area reconstruction at the root.

A sample of 100 trees from the posterior distribution of the BEAST analysis was analyzed in Lagrange under the four DEC models. Bars summarize the proportion of trees yielding a certain maximum-likelihood scenario for the root node. Only two possible scenarios were retrieved: I|AI and I|I.

Figure 5. Statistical DIVA analysis.

Biogeographic reconstruction…

Figure 5. Statistical DIVA analysis.

Biogeographic reconstruction based on statistical dispersal-vicariance analysis as implemented in…

Figure 5. Statistical DIVA analysis.

Biogeographic reconstruction based on statistical dispersal-vicariance analysis as implemented in S-DIVA, with the maximum number or areas at ancestral nodes set to two. The tree is the same as in Fig. 2 after pruning outgroup taxa. Pie charts at nodes represent marginal probabilities for ancestral areas. Different ways of calculating probabilities of ancestral ranges did not affect the result, except for the root node, where reconstructions following (1) and (2) are shown. I – Iberian Peninsula; A – northern Africa; S – Sicily; G – Greece.

Figure 6. Haplotype network of primarily northern…

Figure 6. Haplotype network of primarily northern African clades.

Statistical parsimony network of cpDNA haplotypes…

Figure 6. Haplotype network of primarily northern African clades.

Statistical parsimony network of cpDNA haplotypes (indicated as numbered squares) of clades III and IV. Lines represent single nucleotide substitutions; dots indicate absent haplotypes (extinct or not found). Taxa harbouring each haplotype are shown within the squares, with the number of sequenced individuals indicated in brackets. Geographic distribution of haplotypes is shown, and main clades and lineages mentioned in the text are delimited.

Figure 7. Geographic distribution of cpDNA haplotype…

Figure 7. Geographic distribution of cpDNA haplotype lineages of clades III and IV.

Lineages are…

Figure 7. Geographic distribution of cpDNA haplotype lineages of clades III and IV.

Lineages are named as in Fig. 6. Samples of clade III are shown with white circles, while samples of clade IV are shown with black circles.

See this image and copyright information in PMC

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Why a bridge has not yet been built between Europe and Africa

Some things seem extremely simple to us, their implementation seems to lie on the surface. But often the problem lies in small nuances, pitfalls. For example, from Europe to Africa there are only twelve kilometers, but so far they are not connected by a bridge. Let’s see what are the reasons for this.

Contents of the article:

  1. Two separated continents
  2. Why Europe and Africa cannot be connected

Two separated continents

It is known from the history of the development of planet Earth that the continents have always moved, either uniting into a huge continent, or breaking up into small elements. Even in modern times, the Earth does not stop its formation.

However, human intervention in these processes was minimal. Even the efforts to create the Panama Canal, in comparison with the impact of powerful natural disasters, look quite insignificant.

Mankind has long been trying to make life as comfortable and convenient as possible, and often they are quite successful. For example, the construction of the Eurotunnel and the English Channel. They required the investment of a huge amount of funds and the joint work of different states. nine0003

This experience makes it clear that if desired, the overland road can be built absolutely anywhere. But in practice, everything is not so simple. Africa and Europe are still not connected by tunnel or bridge. And there are good reasons for that.

Why it is impossible to connect Europe and Africa

The impossibility of connecting the European and African continents, at first glance, seems strange and difficult to explain. After all, the distance of twelve kilometers is small. For example, the length of the newly built Crimean bridge was eighteen kilometers. nine0003

Why didn’t the EU countries make attempts to build a road that would allow establishing overland transit communication between African and European states? As it turns out, this is not yet possible.

The main reason is that in some places the depth in the Strait of Gibraltar reaches 2000 meters. It may seem that this is not so much. But for construction in underwater conditions, this is a very significant depth. A huge amount of resources will be required for the construction of only one column. nine0003

The second reason is the strong current in Gibraltar, which has several different directions. This makes it extremely difficult not only to build the bridge itself, but also to maintain it in the future. The threat is posed by tsunamis and other possible natural disasters in the water area of ​​the strait.

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The path from Europe to Africa or the UK, which you did not know: Gibraltar

Gibraltar is a British overseas territory in the southern part of the Iberian Peninsula, blown by strong winds for thousands of years and survived numerous wars and clashes. Now, in the world of globalization and modern technologies, we have a great opportunity to visit where a few centuries ago, instead of modern cargo ships, there were ships of the Phoenicians and Carthaginians, and from the top of the Rock of Gibraltar to see the coast of Africa (you can see it in the video :)) .

Until quite recently it was difficult to get here due to visa restrictions, but now the situation has changed for the better.


Without a national visa, Gibraltar can be entered by persons whose passports contain:
– multiple British visas valid for at least six months;
– multiple entry Schengen visa category C (minimum visa validity – at least 7 days at the time of departure from Gibraltar). nine0003

Citizens of the Russian Federation can also enter the territory of Gibraltar without obtaining an additional visa – as part of a one-day tour organized by Spanish tour operators. That is, if you bought a tour to Gibraltar and enter by bus as part of a group of tourists from Spain, then even your single short-term Schengen visa will work.
These tours usually start from Seville or Malaga, the largest cities in southern Spain.

Getting there

Gibraltar has direct links to Spain, the UK and Morocco.

The city can be reached from Spain by renting a car. But in Gibraltar itself, it is not very convenient to travel by car, as the streets are narrow, the terrain is hilly, and the entrance to the rock – in the national reserve – is prohibited by cars with foreign numbers.

I found it convenient to buy a bus ticket from Malaga in advance (there are direct flights between Moscow and Malaga from Aeroflot and S7). Bus company website: nine0053 Bus with comfortable seats and air conditioning. When buying a ticket online, you can choose seats. A one-way ticket costs 15 euros.

Flights 4 times a day, I chose the earliest at 7:00 am. We left the bus station in the direction of Gibraltar, took a 3-hour nap, and at 10:00 arrived at the La Linea de la Concepción station (Spanish: La Línea de la Concepción). It is up to her that you need to take a ticket, and then walk 700 meters to the border post. If there are no crowds of elderly tourists from China, then you will pass the control very quickly and almost immediately find yourself on the runway of the Gibraltar airport, which is located, in fact, right on the border (Spain and the UK are still arguing over whose territory this is). nine0003

We had to stand for 10 minutes at the barrier, along with office clerks on mopeds, taxi drivers and that very group of Chinese pensioners, until a British Airways plane took off in the direction of London or Manchester.

In Gibraltar, the symbols of Great Britain immediately catch your eye: red telephone boxes, double-decker buses, police uniforms with black and white checkers.

Things to do

Gibraltar is a very small city. One full day will be enough for you to satisfy your travel needs, two – to do it in a very measured mode, and there will still be time for shopping. Since you are in the duty-free territory, many things in boutiques are cheaper than in the same Spain or England. I was not at all interested in shopping during the trip, so the main street was passed at a quick pace. nine0003

My gaze was fixed on the top of the monumental rock of Gibraltar. You can climb there on foot along the serpentine (if you want to train your legs and back, lose an extra hour and a half of time and a couple of kilograms of fluid from the body) or by funicular. The cable car offers different ticket options:

  • one way – 17 euros;
  • round-trip – 20 euros;
  • round-trip + entrance to the national park – 30 euros.

Discounts available for children, students and pensioners. nine0003

The objects of the National Park are all kinds of caves and exhibitions. I wouldn’t recommend skipping them. Since we got to Gibraltar, it is foolish to save on such entertainment.

Gibraltar is the only place in Europe where semi-wild monkeys live in natural conditions of the wild. According to local belief, Gibraltar will be British as long as at least one monkey is alive.
They are not very aggressive, but it is necessary to keep an eye on bags, smartphones, glasses and children. Special observers look after the monkeys, each individual is implanted with a special GPS sensor that tracks the location. There are about 200 of them in total and, they say, each has its own name. nine0053 Monkeys will accompany you almost everywhere.

Photographs at the top are incredible, especially with a wide-angle lens.

In cloudless weather you can see Africa.

Next to large-caliber cannons, you can imagine how they were fired during the First and Second World Wars, how cannonballs whistled back in 1727, when Charlotte’s battery fired volleys at the Spaniards and French.

We climbed the O’Hare battery, the highest point on the rock. Her 9The .2-inch guns have a range of 29,000 yards, enough to cover the straits as far as Africa.

After examining the batteries, go to the caves. Some of them have been converted into a museum, some have been converted into a concert hall with multi-colored lighting, and others are simply interesting to observe the unusual geometry and patterns of rocks.

I was very struck by the suspension bridge. We spent 30 minutes on it, taking photos and videos from various angles, listening to the signals of cargo ships and the cries of seagulls. The views are so mesmerizing that you forget about the fear of heights, even though the bridge sways decently. nine0003

You can go down the cliff on foot. The main thing is to watch carefully so that a cobblestone does not fall from above. Yet the monkeys are jumping there…

In conclusion

Gibraltar is exactly the place to spend one day of your life.