Salinas de: Carlos Salinas de Gortari | Biography & Facts
Carlos Salinas de Gortari | Biography & Facts
Salinas de Gortari, Carlos
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April 3, 1948 (age 74)
- Title / Office:
- president (1988-1994), Mexico
- Political Affiliation:
- Institutional Revolutionary Party
- Role In:
- North American Free Trade Agreement
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Carlos Salinas de Gortari, (born April 3, 1948, Mexico City, Mexico), economist and politician who was president of Mexico from 1988 to 1994.
The son of a Mexican senator, Salinas joined the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) at age 18 and studied economics at the National Autonomous University of Mexico and at Harvard University, earning a Ph.D. in 1978. From 1971 on he held successively more important economic-affairs posts in the government and was supported in his rise by Miguel de la Madrid, who had been one of his professors at the National Autonomous University. When Madrid became president of Mexico in 1982, he made Salinas his minister of planning and the budget, a post that Salinas held until Madrid named him in 1987 to be his successor as the presidential candidate of the PRI in 1988.
No PRI candidate for the presidency had won less than 70 percent of the popular vote in 60 years. In the elections of July 1988, however, Salinas won a bare 50.4 percent of the vote, according to the official tallies; the opposition parties contended that Salinas’s total share of the vote would have been even lower had the PRI not resorted to vote fraud. As president, Salinas continued Madrid’s program of economic retrenchment and privatization. He sold off hundreds of inefficient state-owned corporations to private investors and spent some of the proceeds on infrastructure and social services. He also took steps to open the protected Mexican economy to both foreign investment and foreign competition. In 1991–92 his government co-negotiated the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), which reduced tariffs between Mexico, the United States, and Canada when it went into effect in 1994. NAFTA was greeted with protests by some Mexicans, notably Zapatistas, who staged an uprising in Chiapas state; it was quickly suppressed.
Salinas’s tenure was also marred by revelations of scandals and the assassinations of high-ranking politicians. Shortly after he stepped down from office in November 1994, his brother Raul Salinas de Gortari was arrested and charged with complicity in one of the murders. In addition, the country’s economy collapsed in December, and Carlos was partly blamed. He subsequently went into self-imposed exile for some five years before resettling in Mexico. During this time Raul was convicted, and family troubles continued as another brother, Enrique, was murdered in 2004. The following year Raul’s sentence was voided, and in 2008 he was cleared on “unjust enrichment” charges. Despite such difficulties, Carlos continued to be hugely influential in Mexico’s politics.
The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica
This article was most recently revised and updated by Amy Tikkanen.
Mexico City | Population, Weather, Attractions, Culture, & History
What is Mexico City?
Mexico City is the capital of Mexico and is synonymous with the country’s Federal District. The term Mexico City can also apply to the capital’s metropolitan area, which includes the Federal District but extends beyond it to the west, north, and east. It is called México in Nahuatl and Ciudad de México in Spanish.
Why was Mexico City chosen as the capital?
After Hernán Cortés defeated the Aztecs at their island-capital of Tenochtitlán in 1521, New Spain was created. The capital of New Spain, Mexico City, was built atop the razed island-capital and remained the capital after the country gained independence in 1821.
What is Mexico City’s significance?
Mexico City is one of the most important political, cultural, educational, and financial centres in North America. Mexico City’s leading position can be attributed to its origins in a rich and diverse environment, its long history as a densely populated area, and the central role that its rulers have defined throughout the ages.
Why is Mexico City sinking?
The site where Mexico City was built was once islands in a much larger lake. In the 16th century Spanish colonizers began to drain the lake, causing the residents to rely on underground aquifers for water. Because of this continuous exploitation, the city began to sink, as the aquifer is being depleted more than it’s being replenished, and the clay sheets on which Mexico City is built are compressing and cracking.
Why does Mexico City have earthquakes?
Mexico is located along a subduction zone, where one slab of Earth’s crust—the Cocos oceanic plate—is sliding under another—the North American continental plate. The friction between the crusts causes strong and devastating earthquakes. Mexico City is built on soft soil, which intensifies the effects of earthquakes caused by these tectonic plates.
Read a brief summary of this topic
Mexico City, Nahuatl México, Spanish Ciudad de México or in full Ciudad de México, D. F., city and capital of Mexico, synonymous with the Federal District (Distrito Federal; D.F.). The term Mexico City can also apply to the capital’s metropolitan area, which includes the Federal District but extends beyond it to the west, north, and east, where the state (estado) of México surrounds it on three sides. In contrast, the southern part of the Federal District sustains a limited population on its mountain slopes.
Spanish conquistadors founded Mexico City in 1521 atop the razed island-capital of Tenochtitlán, the cultural and political centre of the Aztec (Mexica) empire. It is one of the oldest continuously inhabited urban settlements in the Western Hemisphere, and it is ranked as one of the world’s most populous metropolitan areas. One of the few major cities not located along the banks of a river, it lies in an inland basin called the Valley of Mexico, or Mesa Central. The valley is an extension of the southern Mexican Plateau and is also known as Anáhuac (Nahuatl: “Close to the Water”) because the area once contained several large lakes. The name México is derived from Nahuatl, the language of its precolonial inhabitants.
Mexico City’s leading position with regard to other urban centres of the developing world can be attributed to its origins in a rich and diverse environment, its long history as a densely populated area, and the central role that its rulers have defined for it throughout the ages. Centralism has perhaps influenced Mexico City’s character the most, for the city has been a hub of politics, religion, and trade since the late Post-Classic Period (13th–16th century ce). Its highland location makes it a natural crossroads for trade between the arid north, the coasts of the Gulf of Mexico (east) and the Pacific Ocean (west), and southern Mexico. The simple footpaths and trails of the pre-Hispanic trade routes became the roads for carts and mule trains of the colonial period and eventually the core of the country’s transportation system, all converging on Mexico City. Throughout the centuries, the city has attracted people from the surrounding provinces seeking jobs and opportunities or the possibilities of comparative safety and shelter, as well as a myriad of amenities from schools and hospitals to neighbourhood organizations and government agencies. Area Federal District, 571 square miles (1,479 square km). Pop. (2010) city, 8,555,272; Federal District, 8,851,080; metro. area, 20,116,842.
Mexico City is a metropolis of contrasts, a monument to a proud and industrious country also faced with many problems. Some observers have fixated on the city’s dangers, horrors, and tragedies—views that were reinforced by the Mexican novelist Carlos Fuentes when he called the city “the capital of underdevelopment.” In the late 20th century the writer Jonathan Kandell retorted, “To its detractors (and even to a few admirers), Mexico City is a nightmare, a monster out of control.…And it just keeps growing.” Others have acknowledged the capital’s drawbacks while holding that it is a true home to millions—a bustling mosaic of avenues, economic interests, and colonias (neighbourhoods) that are buttressed by extended family networks, reciprocity, and respect.
By itself the Federal District (the city proper) is comparable in many ways to New York City, Mumbai, and Shanghai. But the capital’s huge metropolitan population constitutes some one-fifth of Mexico’s total, representing one of the world’s most significant ratios of capital-to-national population. The country’s next largest city, Guadalajara, is only a fraction of its size. Moreover, its dense population has yielded an unparalleled concentration of power and wealth for its urban elite, though not for the denizens of its sprawling shantytowns and lower-working-class neighbourhoods.
The city’s rich heritage is palpable on the streets and in its parks, colonial-era churches, and museums. On the one hand it includes quiet neighbourhoods resembling slow-paced rural villages, while on the other it has bustling, overbuilt, cosmopolitan, heavy-traffic areas. Its inhabitants have sought to preserve the magnificence of the past, including the ruins of the main Aztec temple and the mixture of 19th-century French-style mansions and department stores that complement its graceful colonial palaces and churches.
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Yet the city’s residents also embrace modernity, as evidenced by world-class examples of the International Style of architecture and the conspicuous consumption of steel, concrete, and glass. Contemporary high-rise structures include the Torre Latinoamericana (Latin American Tower) and the World Trade Center, the museums and hotels along Paseo de la Reforma, and the opulent shopping centres of Perisur and Santa Fé. Supermarkets have sprung up around the metropolis, but traditional markets such as the Merced are still bustling with hawkers of fresh fruits, live chickens, tortillas, and charcoaled corn on the cob. Chapultepec Castle, the Independence Monument, the Pemex fountain, and numerous other monuments and memorials attest to past dreams and future aspirations amid the chaos of congested avenues and endless neighbourhoods built on the dry bed of Lake Texcoco.
Hotels in Salinas de Anyana – Booking.
Very good: 8+
Fairly good: 6+
Lowest price at the beginning
Number of stars and price
Rating + number of reviews
Casa Rural Madera y Sal
Salinas de Anyana
Casa Rural Madera y Sal is located in Salinas. It offers rooms and apartments with free Wi-Fi and parking.
VISTAS AL VALLE SALADO
Salinas de Anyana
Located in Salinas de Añana in the Basque Country region, VISTAS AL VALLE SALADO has a garden. Free private parking is available.
MI CASA DE MADERA
Paúl (Near Salinas de Anyana)
Offering a terrace and garden view, MI CASA DE MADERA is set in Paúl, 25 km from Mendizorroza Stadium and 26 km from Basque House of Parliament in Vitoria-Gasteiz.
La Cabana Rural
Paúl (Near Salinas de Anyana)
Located in Paul in the Basque Country region, La Cabaña Rural has a holiday home. Free private parking is available. The campsite has a children’s playground.
Such a beautiful place! Jorge was very accommodating with our request for extension cables to charge our electric car. The cabin was so lovely and peaceful. Amazing.
Casa Torre Cantoblanco
Barron (Near Salinas de Anyana)
Albergue Cantoblanco is located in Barron, 47 km from Bilbao. It features a terrace with mountain views. Free private parking is available on site.
We had a wonderful experience, a small old Spanish village, very educational
Alojamiento Rural Abuela Andrea
Caicedo Yuso (Near Salinas de Anyana)
Alojamiento Rural Abuela Andrea is located in Caicedo Yuso. It offers a shared lounge, free Wi-Fi, a 24-hour front desk and a shared kitchen.
Espejo (Near Salinas de Anyana)
Situated in Espejo in the Basque Country region, Areeta Etxea has a garden. The windows offer mountain views. Haro is 44 km from the property.
Espejo (Near Salinas de Anyana)
Located in Espejo, Gaubeako Ekhia features accommodation with free WiFi .The holiday home features city views and is 40 km from Haro.
Everything!! Simply put this is the best self catering accommodation my family and I have ever stayed in.
Una casa con vistas en Pobes
Pobes (Near Salinas de Anyana)
Holiday home Una casa con vistas en Pobes is located in Pobes. This property features a garden, barbecue facilities and a terrace. Haro is 41 km away.
Casa Rural Lagun Etxea
Pobes (Near Salinas de Anyana)
Situated in Pob, 36 km from Haro, Lagun Etxea provides a garden and free WiFi. The fully equipped private bathroom comes with a shower and a hairdryer.
Friendly welcome by a lovely gentleman, so nice to receive such a wide smile after a day on the road.
Breakfast was very good.
Everything was spotlessly clean.
Bedding and towels of very good quality.
See all hotels in and around Salinas de Anyana
White Pearl of the Basque Country-Salinas de Anyana in Vitoria-Gastis, 🇪🇸 excursion, price € 200
COMPLEMENT COMPORTANCE COMPLE If you decide to cancel your reservation up to 48 hours before the start of the event, you will receive a 100% refund of the amount paid
Salinas de Añana
Salt terraces, connected by a network of wooden channels through which salt water flows, have been producing salt in the traditional way since ancient times. Roman Empire. Today it is one of the most outstanding and well-preserved salt mines in Europe with a unique landscape of 5,000 salt terraces, half of which are active.
During the tour you will find out what was at this place millions of years ago, see how salt is mined, and you will be able to try yourself in this business, as well as taste various types of salt. And at the end of the tour, you can take a beneficial salt bath in the open-air salt spa.
After visiting the salt terraces, we can walk around the village of Salinas de Agnana, which has preserved medieval buildings and baroque mansions.
At the end of the tour, optional lunch at a restaurant in a historic building of the 16th century. Menu of traditional Basque cuisine using salt from Salinas de Anyana.
- Entrance tickets to the salt terraces (7-9 euros) and lunch (15-20 euros) are paid separately.
- This excursion, if desired (on prior request), can be supplemented by an excursion to the nearby medieval castle of Los Varona, shrouded in legends about brave knights, in the residential interior of which there is a museum with an original exposition dedicated to the history of this ancient noble family, living to this day in him. (transfer 20 min) + tour of the castle 1 hour. The cost is 80 euros for a group of 1-4 people.
Select a date when booking
Answers to questions
- Start and finish location?
At your hotel in Vitoria-Gasteiz
- When and how long does it take?
When: Select a date when booking
Tour lasts approximately 3 hours
- Who else will be with me?
This is a private tour , all attention will be for you and your company. Group size no more than 4 people.
- Need to pay for everything at once? org/Answer”>
- Can I ask a question before booking?
Of course, the guide will be happy to answer your questions.
Just go to this form and ask your question. It is not necessary to pay, you just make a request for a reservation without payment, but with a question, and if something does not suit you then just do not pay or press the cancel button.
No, you do not need to pay in full right away – just pay 23% of the cost, and the rest is already on the spot. This is necessary so that the date and number of people are reserved for you, and the guides begin to prepare for the tour. Before paying, you can ask the organizer a question
Natalia is your guide in Vitoria-Gasteiz
Conducted 447 excursions for 753 tourists
Official Russian-speaking guide-interpreter of the Spanish host travel agency. While studying Spanish at the Instituto Cervantes in Moscow, I traveled a lot around Spain and fell in love with this amazing country so much that I decided to move here.